物理学习中,实验方法有很多,来认识一下

一控制变量法 1. 研究蒸发快慢与液体温度、液体表面积和液体上方空气流动速度的关系。 2 .研究弦乐器的音调与弦的松紧、长短和粗细的关系。 3. 研究压力的作用效果与压力和受力面积…

一控制变量法

1. 研究蒸发快慢与液体温度、液体表面积和液体上方空气流动速度的关系。

2 .研究弦乐器的音调与弦的松紧、长短和粗细的关系。

3. 研究压力的作用效果与压力和受力面积的关系。

4. 研究液体的压强与液体密度和深度的关系。

5 .研究滑动摩擦力与压力和接触面粗糙程度的关系。

6 .研究物体的动能与质量和速度的关系。

7. 研究物体的势能与质量和高度的关系。

8. 研究导体电阻的大小与导体长度材料横截面积的关系。

9 .研究导体中电流与导体两端电压、导体电阻的关系。

10. 研究电流产生的热量与导体中电流、电阻和通电时间的关系。

11. 研究电磁铁的磁性与线圈匝数和电流大小的关系。

二图像法

1 .用温度时间图像理解融化、凝固、沸腾现象。

2 .电流、电压、图像理解欧姆定律I=U/R、电功率P=UI

3 .正比、反比函数图象巩固密度ρ=m/V、重力G=mg、速度v=s/t、杠杆平衡F1L1=F2L2

4.压强p=F/S p=ρgh 浮力F=ρ液gV排、功、热量Q=cm(t2-t1)等公式。

三转换法的应用

1.利用乒乓球的弹跳将音叉的振动放大;利用轻小物体的跳动或振动来证明发声的物体在振动。

2.用温度计测温度是利用内部液体热胀冷缩改变的体积来反映温度高低。

3. 测量滑动摩擦力时转化成测拉力的大小。

4.通过研究扩散现象认识看不见摸不着的分子运动。

5.判断有无电流课通过观察电路中的灯泡是否发光来确定。

6.磁场看不见、摸不着,可以通过观察小磁针是否转动来判断磁场是否存在。

7.判断电磁铁磁性强弱时,用电磁铁吸引的大头针的数目来确定。

8.研究电阻与电热的关系时,电流通过阻值不等的两根电阻丝产生的热量无法直接观测或比较,可通过转换为可看见的现象(气体的膨胀、火柴的点燃等的不同)来推导出那个电阻放热多。

四实验推理法

1 .研究真空中能否传声。

2 .研究阻力对运动的影响。

3 .“在自然界只存在两种电荷”这一重要结论也是在实验基础上推理得出来的。

五等效替代法

1 .在电路中若干个电阻可以等效为一个合适的电阻,反之亦可;如等效电路、串并联电路的等效电阻,都利用了等效的思维方法。

2 .在研究平面镜成像实验中用两根完全相同的蜡烛其中一根等效另一根的像。

3 .用加热时间来替代物体吸收的热量。

4 .用自行车轮测量跑道的长度,跑道较长,无法直接测量,用滚轮法处理:轮子的周长乘以圈数即为跑道的周长。

六类比归纳法的应用

1 .研究电流时类比水流

2 .用“水压”类比“电压”

3 .用抽水机类比电源

4 .研究做功快慢时与运动快慢进行类比等

5 .用弹簧连接的小球类比分子间的相互作用力

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