《制造业人才发展规划指南》发布:推进制造业人才供给侧改革

制图:中国教导报 李坚真 “至2025年,新一代信息技巧财产人才缺口将达950万人,高级数控机床和机械人领域人才缺口将达450万人,航天航空设置设备摆设领域缺口将达47.5万人,海…

制图:中国教导报 李坚真

“至2025年,新一代信息技巧财产人才缺口将达950万人,高级数控机床和机械人领域人才缺口将达450万人,航天航空设置设备摆设领域缺口将达47.5万人,海洋工程设置设备摆设及高技巧船舶领域缺口将达26.6万人……”

实施《中国制造2025》,关键在人才。制造业人才步队扶植只管取得了显明成就,但从《制造业人才成长筹划指南》对十大年夜重点领域人才需求猜测来看,依然面临着布局性过剩与缺乏并存等凸起问题。

2月14日上午,教导部宣布由其联合人力资本和社会保障部、工业和信息化部合营体例的《制造业人才成长筹划指南》。作为《中国制造2025》的紧张配套文件,《指南》以需乞降问题为导向,对人才成长的系统体例机制进行顶层设计,提出到2020年,形成与制造业成长需求相适应的人力资本扶植格局,基础确立扶植制造强国的人才上风,为实现中国制造“三步走”计谋目标奠定坚实人才根基。

教导部职业教导与成人教导司巡视员王继平表示,《指南》为未来一个时期中国制造业人才成长供给行动纲领,提出了7项核心义务和5项重点人才工程,重点义务分化涵盖43个方面、涉及12个部委。此中,由教导部零丁或合营牵头的就有22项,集中表现了办事国家计谋、教导主动作为的精神。

从人才提供侧革新破解“大年夜而不强”

《指南》走漏,在制造业人才培养的规模上,我国位居天下前列。2015年,我国高等黉舍本科工科类专业点数约1.6万个,工科类专业本科在校生525万人、钻研生在校人数69万;高等职业黉舍制造大年夜类专业点数约6000个,在校生136万人;中等职业黉舍加工制造类专业点数约1.1万个,在校生186万人。

但同时,制造业人才步队扶植存在人才布局性过剩与缺乏并存、产教交融不敷深入、工程教导实践环节懦弱、企业在人才成长中的主体感化尚未充分发挥、人才成长社会情况有待进一步改良等一些凸起问题。

为此,《指南》明确提出,要推进制造业人才提供布局革新、加快实现财产和教导深度交融、提升制造业人才关键能力和本质、打造高本质专业技巧人才步队、培育身手精湛的技巧技能人才步队、扶植高水平的经营治理人才步队等7项核心义务。

针对教导有关问题,教导部主动作为,王继平先容说,从《指南》表现的内容来看,可以概括为四个“全”,即全方位构建人才培养体系、全领域进行人才提供革新、全历程推进教导教授教化立异、全角度加强人才培养保障。

《指南》强调“健全多层次多类型人才培养体系”,统筹筹划各级种种教导成长,周全办事中国制造2025,对从中小学教导、职业教导、本科教导不停到钻研生教导以及继承教导的各层次种种型教导均提出了重点义务。

《指南》还强调要“推进制造业人才提供布局革新”“精准对接重点领域人才需求”,提出了制造业十大年夜重点领域人才需求猜测,确定了从业职员匀称受教导年限、受过高等教导的比例、高技能人才和研发职员占比等详细目标;在专业设置、教授教化内容、培养模式以及师资步队扶植上,都强调与财产成长对接,产教深度交融,重视在实践中培养人才。

完善人才成长情况提升职业吸引力

制造业临盆一线职工,分外是技巧技能人才的社会职位地方和报酬整体较低、成长通道不畅,人才培养培训投入总体不够等问题不停存在,制约着我国制造业的转型进级。在国家制造强国扶植引导小组办公室成员、工信部筹划司副司长李北光看来,这次《指南》的亮点之一,便是将技巧工人的职位地方提升到与企业家、科学家一致紧张位置上来。

《指南》不仅在7项核心义务中将培育身手精湛的技巧技能人才步队与打造高本质专业技巧人才步队、扶植高水平经营治理人才步队放在了一致紧张位置,在筹划内的重点人才工程中,也将能工巧匠和高技能人才培植工程、全员本质提升工程与立异型专业技巧人才开拓工程以及企业经营治理人才成长工程一路纳入。

此外,还将扶植一大年夜批进修型制造业企业。在实施高技能人才振兴计划中,环抱制造业十大年夜重点领域,支持有关地区、部门开展高技能人才培训基地和技能大年夜师事情室扶植。到2020年,扶植1200个高技能人才培训基地和1000个阁下国家级技能大年夜师事情室,基础形成覆盖重点财产和中间城市的高技能人才培养收集。

《指南》还明确,将进一步前进企业技能人才经济报酬和社会职位地方,进一步健全收入分配勉励机制,结合实际探索推行协议人为制、项目人为制、年薪制中分配法子。完善劳动、常识、技巧、技能、治理等临盆要素按供献介入分配的轨制。

教导部职业教导与成人教导司副司长王扬南先容,将向导地方健全生均拨款轨制,区分专业类型,向制造业倾斜,慢慢分类推进中等职业教导免除学杂费。在实施相关重大年夜工程、重点项目时统筹安排人才开拓培养经费,并纳入项目实施稽核体系。

构建协同共进事情系统体例机制保障落实

制造业人才成长,涉及人才培养、应用、流动、评价、勉励等各个方面,《指南》涵盖了人才成长多个领域的政策步伐。

作为国家制造强国扶植计谋咨询委员会专家,大年夜连海事大年夜黉舍长孙玉清深入阐发了美、德、澳等传统制造强国工程技巧教导与培训体系环境。基于对照钻研,他觉得,《指南》周全接受了这些国家在工程技巧人才培养方面的英华,凸起了与制造强国计谋的慎密对接,对匆匆进制造业人才成长具有深远影响。

在中国机器工业联合会履行副会擅长清笈看来,《指南》是立异人才成长系统体例机制的顶层设计,分外是明确了相关部门的义务分工,目标详细、内容翔实、操作性强,是一个宏大年夜的系统工程。她觉得应积极构建政府主导、行业办事、院校企业为主体、社会介入、协同共进、相助共赢的系统体例机制,为强国计谋的实施和强国目标的实现供给坚实保障。

“《制造业人才成长筹划指南》的宣布,标志着《中国制造2025》‘1+X’筹划指南整个宣布。《中国制造2025》顶层设计基础完成,已周全转入实施阶段。”李北光说,推动中国制造业又大年夜又强,是经久艰难而紧迫的义务,《指南》重点义务分化涵盖43个方面、涉及12个部委,必要体系化推进而非单兵作战,要加快推进我国的人才布局适应制造业数字化、收集化、智能化重大年夜厘革,人才生长的政策情况适应制造技巧与信息技巧交融成长的迫切需求,引发高本质劳动者“新人口红利”,为推进“中国制造”转型进级供给根本动力。

(原题为:《中国制造人才培养有了“路线图”》)

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