高素质师资——芬兰教育成功经验的核心

决定一家医院医疗服务质量的核心因素是什么?先进的医疗设备?数字化诊疗?主管部门的严格监管?全国统一的标准?和蔼可亲的护士?这些或许都很重要,但是假如缺少了高素质的专业医生,所有这一…

高素质师资——芬兰教育成功经验的核心

决定一家医院医疗服务质量的核心因素是什么?先进的医疗设备?数字化诊疗?主管部门的严格监管?全国统一的标准?和蔼可亲的护士?这些或许都很重要,但是假如缺少了高素质的专业医生,所有这一切条件再好,都不足以弥补。学校教育同样如此:高素质、高度专业化的教师队伍,是高质量教育的核心。

这正是芬兰近几十年教育事业高度成功的经验之一。芬兰的教师培养体系的确与发达国家的医学院十分相像:例如小学阶段教师必须拥有五年制师范专业硕士研究生学位,学习期间和毕业后还必须通过课堂教学实习积累大量经验,之后方能获得独立担当学校教师的资格。而且,与医学院一样,师范硕士在芬兰是非常难考的专业,以今年赫尔辛基地区为例,平均每一百个报考者仅录取7人。

看到这样的介绍,千万不要误以为芬兰教师选拔和培训看重的只是学历而已。严格的入学选拔保证了未来教师队伍的基本素质;而师资培养过程中教学法理论研究与课堂教学实践的紧密结合或许才是真正的“秘诀”。

高素质师资——芬兰教育成功经验的核心

不妨通过两位芬兰(实习)老师的故事来看一看芬兰教师是怎样炼成的:

22岁的维勒(Ville Sallinen)是Viikki师范学院五年制硕士学位小学教育课程的学生(芬兰所有教师均来自于全国各地大学附属的十一所师范学院)。他目前正在师范学院附属的实验小学里实习,这就和医学院学生在医学院的附属医院里担任实习医生一样。维勒还是高中生的时候就曾经担任过小朋友们的足球教练,“孩子王”的经历让他萌发了做老师的憧憬。他觉得自己不见得长于“学术”——和他的许多师范硕士同学一样,是对教育的热忱让他选择报考师范专业的。“在这样的学校里可以积累许多经验。到明年就不再是实习了,我将要在真正的学校里获得实际的教学经验。”维勒脸上洋溢着对未来职业教师生涯的向往。

在附属实验小学里,每天的实习教学结束后,维勒要与听课的导师一起详细研究当天课堂实习的得失,并且将实践经验上升到理论,以便日后再用理论指导实践。芬兰的师范教育不仅将理论建立在实证研究的基础上,而且实习教师全都参与到研究中来,理论创新全部建立在有说服力的课堂证据的基础之上。有丰富经验的老教师没有足够的理论素养也不能“倚老卖老”,理论学了一大堆只能纸上谈兵的高学历毕业生也不是芬兰师范教育所希望培养的理想人才。

高素质师资——芬兰教育成功经验的核心

37岁的尤西(Jussi Hietava)在芬兰偏远地区一所小学里教四年级学生数学课。他的教学任务是双重的:既要教小学生,也要担任实习教师的导师。尤西是芬兰业余高尔夫冠军,儿时的梦想是当战斗机飞行员,想不到竟因为身材太高挤不进战斗机座舱,“无奈之下”只好选择了在芬兰仅次于医师的社会地位第二高的职业:教师。

坐在尤西的教室里聆听他上课,你很快就会体会到芬兰教育改革的成功之处:创新不在于教室里学生和老师是否人手一台平板电脑,芬兰的学校并没有急于赶“数字化”的时髦。真正重要的是教师——高度专业化,启发鼓励式的教学,温馨宽松的氛围,以及随时进行的评估与反馈。尤西和他的同事们在不断试验新的方法以改进学生的学习,例如他们最近在试点新的评估手段,其中包括让学生每天总结自己当天的学习成果,即“自我评估”,以及学生在精心指点下相互提供反馈,即“同侪互评”。

高素质师资——芬兰教育成功经验的核心

芬兰既没有全国统一标准化考试,教育主管当局也早已摒弃了对学校进行督导的做法。芬兰教师在教学实践中极大的自主权是其他许多国家所没有的。这种自主权的前提条件正是高质量的师范教育、高度专业化的师资队伍。而正是因为教师有根据自己的专业判断实施教学的自由,才有了芬兰总体质量极高的基础教育。难怪近十几年来世界各国的老师们纷纷组队前来芬兰考察。身为教师或者家长的你,是不是也想来亲身体验一下呢?

芬兰移民咨询微信号:haiwai800

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本文为头条号作者发布,不代表今日头条立场。

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