背诵是孩子最有效的学习方法?当然不,那什么是?

我们是有背诵传统的国家,古代私塾里,先生教书,孩子背书,孩子学着先生的样子摇头晃脑,背诵着流利却不知所云的文章。今日的学校,依然延续了这样的学习方式。背古文,背诗词,背课文,背公式…

我们是有背诵传统的国家,古代私塾里,先生教书,孩子背书,孩子学着先生的样子摇头晃脑,背诵着流利却不知所云的文章。今日的学校,依然延续了这样的学习方式。背古文,背诗词,背课文,背公式,背答案……但是背诵,真的是记忆最有效的方法吗?

背诵是一种记忆的方法。通过朗读,记忆的内容由视觉转移到听觉,对大脑多一层刺激,多一次输入,的确是一种简单易行的记忆方式。曾经在耳边反复回响的声音,有可能在需要时,从大脑中自动播放。但是简单易行的方式,未必是最好的方式。

背诵是孩子最有效的学习方法?当然不,那什么是?

首先,背诵是一种枯燥的方式。反复地朗读、反复地背诵,对于学龄的孩子谈不上一件快乐有趣的经历和感受,不是一种从孩子天性出发尊重孩子发展规律的方式。即使对于成人,背诵是考试前的临时抱佛脚,或是苦行僧一般磨炼意志的习惯,实在难以成为长期坚持又轻松愉悦的记忆方式。

背诵是孩子最有效的学习方法?当然不,那什么是?

其次,背诵是一种低效的方式。孩子的理解力有限,在背诵时,容易陷入死记硬背的模式,付出时间很多,而收获的成果却很低。尽管孩子普遍记忆力好,记得快,但是没有理解根基的背诵,容易遗忘,与付出的时间相比,效率低下。

背诵是孩子最有效的学习方法?当然不,那什么是?

再次,背诵易被滥用成为学习的主要手段,甚而成为学习的目的。与古代的生活方式和科学水平大大不同,当代社会,知识可以通过硬件无限存储,可以通过网络迅速查找,知识的重要性正在迅速降低,而创新的影响力却日益渐增。过于强调背诵的重要性,把背诵当成主要的学习方式,就会忽略日新月异巨变的社会现实,无法适应新环境对创造力的要求。

背诵是孩子最有效的学习方法?当然不,那什么是?

最后,背诵方式花去的过度的时间,就是付出了更多的机会成本。孩子成长的时间非常有限,在有限的时间内,本应该有更多的机会去感知、探索和想象,在背诵上付出的时间成本,就剥夺了孩子在其他方面迅速成长进步的机会。

背诵是孩子最有效的学习方法?当然不,那什么是?

当然,我承认背诵是一种行之简单的记忆方法,也是一种常用的方法,但是随着现代社会科学技术的进步,人类认知的不断探索,我们拓展的记忆和学习方法远远不止于古人的背诵。比如,思维导图,就是一种帮助记忆和组织想法的有效工具;观看好玩有趣的纪录片是一种帮助记忆的方式,特别是在背诵历史、政治等抽象内容时,有具体的图像来演绎,对记忆大有帮助;参观博物馆,也是一种与记忆内容建立直观链接的方式;亲自体验、参与、实践(动手),是非常难忘的记忆和学习方式,自己真正做过的事,与通过机械重复背过的书,哪个更让人难忘呢?

总之,坐拥现代文明,不能死守陈旧的学习方式,背诵可以有,但更应该帮助孩子用更多的现代化手段和方式来记忆和学习。背诵是一种记忆的形式,记忆是学习的手段,而创造性地运用才是学习的真正目的我将在今后继续探讨孩子高效记忆与学习的方式,敬请期待。(微信公号:一品光阴养心性)

背诵是孩子最有效的学习方法?当然不,那什么是?

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