“嫦娥五号”2017年择机发射 揭秘五大看点

  中新社北京3月2日电 题:“嫦娥五号”2017年择机发射 揭秘五大年夜看点   中新社记者 张素   中国将在2017岁尾发射“嫦娥五号&r…

  中新社北京3月2日电 题:“嫦娥五号”2017年择机发射 揭秘五大年夜看点

  中新社记者 张素

  中国将在2017岁尾发射“嫦娥五号”月球探测器,按计划将取回2千克的月壤样品。全国人大年夜代表、探月工程三期总设计师胡浩2日在北京吸收中新社记者采访时先容了“嫦娥五号”五大年夜看点。

  看点一:在地外天体采样

  胡浩说,已为“嫦娥五号”设计两种取样要领,用以富厚样品类型。其一是在月面打钻,是为取得较深层的月壤;其二是用机器臂在月球外面取样,在有限范围内“横扫”。两种样品的比例约为1:3,外面采取的更多一些。

  只管机器臂在地面实验室里模拟月球重力情况,挥舞自若,但要到了38万公里以外的月球上,它还能否正确攫取一抔土令人等候。

  看点二:从月面起飞

  “嫦娥五号”由轨道器、返回器、上升器和着陆器组成。此中,上升器将携带月壤样品从已落在月面的着陆器上起飞。

  胡浩对中新社记者指出,有别于地面发射有全面的保障系统,月面起飞时“着陆器的状态将抉择上升状态,而着陆器落在哪里,现在还很难说。”

  此外,受限于运载火箭的重量和布局,也无法为上升器配备“导流槽”,是以上升器起飞时火焰喷射可能“反卷”,上升器若何抗滋扰也是技巧难关。

  看点三:在月球轨道长进行无人交会对接

  胡浩说,不合于“天宫”系列与“神舟”飞船已进行的撞击式交会对接,“嫦娥五号”的上升器与轨道器在月球轨道上的无人交会对接是“抓捕式”。

  说得形象一些,轨道器将携带“大年夜爪子”,待上升器接近时将其“抓获”。此次交会对接更对测控精度提出严苛的要求,“眼睛得好使,偏差大年夜了就抓不住。”

  看点四:转移月壤样品

  胡浩先容,上升器被轨道器“抓获”今后,还必要把月壤样品转移到返回器里,“这个历程也是动作多、难度大年夜”。

  记者问及月壤样品分发规划,胡浩笑着说已是“供不应求”。他希冀能为中外科学家取回月球样品,使人类对付月球的熟识更为深刻。

  看点五:携带月壤以靠近第二宇宙速率返回地球

  对付这一点,因在2014年已成功进行探月工程三期再入返回飞行试验,已验证返回器以靠近第二宇宙速率(11.2千米/秒)返回地球,胡浩多了一份底气。

  在他看来,假如成功实现探月“绕”“落”“回”,走通一条技巧路线,或将为未来的深空探测及载人登月做铺垫。

  如今,间隔中国探月工程三期“大年夜考”不够10个月,胡浩坦言事情量还很大年夜,且具有风险。“义务正在按照计划稳步向前推进,估计年内准期实现探月工程三期的目标”,他说。(完)

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