学习临界知识、提高学习效率的2个心态3个方法和4个技巧

《好好学习》第二章精华 前面和大家分享了什么是临界知识?这章和大家分享如何学习临界知识,提高学习效率! 学习临界知识,需要从具体的知识输入开始,而最基本而又重要的方式是读书,但是我…

学习临界知识、提高学习效率的2个心态3个方法和4个技巧

《好好学习》第二章精华

前面和大家分享了什么是临界知识?这章和大家分享如何学习临界知识,提高学习效率!

学习临界知识,需要从具体的知识输入开始,而最基本而又重要的方式是读书,但是我们往往读书时陷入了「低水平勤奋的陷阱」。因此,成甲首先给我们提供了跳出「低水平勤奋陷阱」的方法。

紧接着成甲给出了学习临界知识需要具备的两个心态,提升学习能力的三个底层方法以及三个持续提升学习能力的技巧。

下面从从跳出低水平勤奋陷阱、学习临界知识需要具备的两个心态、提升学习能力的三个底层方法以及三个持续提升学习能力的技巧四个方面进行详细分享。

一、跳出低水平勤奋陷阱

我们在读书的时候,往往出现读了书记不住,很多书在回头看的时候,发现现在从书中明白的很多道理,以前看不到,总觉得以前自己读的书白读了,但是自己之前明明是在特别勤奋的阅读,其实这是我们陷入了“低水平勤奋陷阱”。

跳出低水平勤奋陷阱的方法是升级我们的读书方法

升级后的读书方法如下:

读书不再追求速度,相反,刻意放慢速度。不仅仅摘记名言,要花时间记录读书笔记,描述读书后受启发的内容,花时间、耐心和思考力,将获得的新知识和已有的知识进行网络状的联系。

在记录和寻找新旧知识之间联系的过程中,我们会惊奇地发现一些过去不曾注意的规律,也发现很多能够直接改进工作的方法。

我们的读书成效进入了一种产生复利效应的状态,也就是说,我们读的所有书都将为我未来获取新的知识提供帮助。

读书不在于多少,而在于你有没有通过读书重新认识这个世界,发现临界知识并把它运用到自己的生活当中。

对于学习临界知识而言,首先是心态方法和习惯的养成,其次才是具体的知识和技能。

二、学习临界知识需要具备的两个心态

学习临界知识需要具备的两个底层心态是:绿灯思维和以慢为快。

1、底层心态之一:绿灯思维

想要通过接触新的观点和知识快速增长,就要面对和自己传统认知不一样的地方。

而在这种情况下,我们很容易激起自我防卫。要改变这一点,就要培养第一个底层心态—绿灯思维。积极地考虑新观点,有价值的地方。

但是要做到这一点,首先就要有更底层的认识,区分「我」和「我的观点行为」,不再把对自己观点的质疑与自己这个人绑定起来。这样下次我们在面对挑战时,就可以从容地问自己,我的观点是不是可以在别人的意见里进化得更好?

2、底层心态之二:以慢为快

掌握临界知识,首先要在学习新知识时有绿灯思维,而在具体学习时,又要有以慢为快的心态,把慢功夫用在真问题上,比如学习掌握临界知识。

我们想要快速提高,努力的方向应该是花大力气打通那些知识阻塞,而不是追求看起来很花哨的新方法、新技巧。

就像练武功,我们首先要打通奇经八脉,保证了自己身体底层的心法已经成熟,再学习新技巧、新方法这些招式,才能有快速的长进。

三、提升学习能力的三个底层方法

提升学习能力的三个底层方法是:反思,以教为学,刻意练习。

1、反思:提升知识掌握的层次

反思在学习的过程中至少起以下三方面的作用:

发现知识误区,帮我们发现错误,矫正行为;

促进已有知识产生新知识;

检验学习的新知识是否用了起来。

训练反思能力的三个方法:

从小事反思,深入突破;

把生活案例化处理;

培养记反思日记的习惯。

以前发过的文章「反思让我们的学习能力实现复利增长」,针对反思进行了较为细致的分析,可以参考阅读。

2、以教为学

学习是一个输入知识的过程,为什么教别人能够促进学习呢?

这是因为,教别人的过程表面上是知识输出,但实际上这个过程还有额外的三个价值:

1、因为要教别人,就会督促自己发现知识堵塞,进一步打通已有知识。

2、教别人的过程是一个强化记忆和认识的过程。

3、教别人之后,别人提出疑问、质疑和新想法,会增强我们的认识。

具体以教为学的方法应用中应注意如下两个问题:

备课不能知道多少讲多少,要为讲清楚这个问题,大量查阅资料、购买书籍。

在备课中,一定要主动查询不同的观点和不支持自己结论的反面案例。

3、刻意练习

刻意练习的核心假设是:尽管专家级水平是逐渐练出来的,但是关键在于,受训者必须通过掌握更高级的心理表征,才能真正有突飞猛进的进步。

所谓心理表征,就是我们的大脑在思考问题时对应的心理结构。也就是元认知。元认知是对我们思考过程的思考。

刻意练习,就是提升元认知能力的过程。

我们在元认知上的差别表现为认知效率和认知深度上的差异。从本质上讲,本书提及的所有的方法和努力,都是在追求提升我们的元认知能力。

但是,元认知能力的提升是很困难的,因为我们既有的思考过程有强大的惯性,所以我们必须通过悬挂假设、反思、矫正假设等一系列方法来改变它。而这个过程,实际上就是用刻意练习在改变我们的元认知。

元认知与临界知识,一个是思考的过程,一个是思考的工具。

刻意练习最关键的不是掌握具体的临界知识,而是要改变我们的思考过程,有意识地运用更高级的心理表征解决问题,提升元认知能力。

通过刻意练习,来掌握临界知识和提升元认知能力的方法有如下三点:

对基本核心知识画小圈;

将基本知识组合成更大的知识能力单元;

在各知识能力单元之间构建认知框架。

四、持续提升学习能力的三个技巧

持续提升学习能力的三个技巧是记录、定期回顾和付费购买。

1、如实记录

如实记录有两个价值:

第一、如实记录,可以让我们过去和别人同样的时间后,有丰富的资料材料拿出来吸取教训,加速成长;

第二、记录的时间跨度越长,就越可能让自己看清楚更深层的规律。

从书写升级为记录,有两方面要改变:

一是,要如实地记录整个事情的发展过程,我们要尝试训练自己记录发生了什么,是如何发生的,而不仅仅是事后自以为是的去解释为什么;

二是,记录是一个主动思考的过程,是一个挖掘看这件事情背后看不见的关系的过程。

记录的过程,其实是联想、启发、归纳、演绎的大集合,是调用自己所有的知识去重新理解过去一天发生的事情。

2、定期回顾

回顾是连接过去与未来的纽带。

周回顾:审视问题的解决思路;

年度回顾:检视基本思维方式和激发灵感;

五年以上的回顾:探寻基本规律如何影响生活。

3、付费购买

我们努力学习的一个重要目的就是,在有限的时间内,尽可能多地增进认知深度。

从宏观角度上看,有助于提升认知效率的努力方向有两个:一是想办法提升自己学习内容的质量,并增加数量;二是增加有效学习的时间。

这两个因素中,时间是更刚性的因素,我们无法把一天24小时再多掰出来哪怕一分钟,因此我们只能优先提升学习内容的质量。而付费就是在提高学习内容的质量。

本文对成甲老师的《好好学习》第二章进行了归纳分析,从跳出低水平勤奋陷阱、学习临界知识需要具备的两个心态、提升学习能力的三个底层方法以及三个持续提升学习能力的技巧四个方面进行详细分享,欢迎大家交流探讨!

欢迎关注我的个人公众号:点滴中成长(ID:upme365),这里有关于学习和成长的优质原创文章,期待一起做个更好的人。

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