法院判决书还可以这样看!你get到学习判决书的方法了吗?

2013年底上线中国裁判文书网(http://wenshu.court.gov.cn/)至今,已经收录的裁判文书达26893494篇,文书的总量每天仍在增加。 (数据来源于中国裁判…

2013年底上线中国裁判文书网(http://wenshu.court.gov.cn/)至今,已经收录的裁判文书达26893494篇,文书的总量每天仍在增加。

法院判决书还可以这样看!你get到学习判决书的方法了吗?

(数据来源于中国裁判文书网,统计截至于2017年3月5日16时12分

对于普通民众来说,裁判文书的公开可能只是意味着法院的审判变得透明,可以更好地促进司法公开和司法公正,但对于法学生的我们来说,需要深度挖掘的是裁判文书内容所蕴含的价值,它是一个巨大且源源不尽的案例库,是我们进行自我学习和提升诉讼实务技能的资源库,可以使我们足不出户,接触法律实务。因此如何有效地分解裁判文书,结合诉讼实务进行有目的性地学习,就是今天我写这篇文章的原因。

裁判文书又可细分为判决书、裁定书、调解书、决定书等,今天主要讨论的是一审的民事判决书,一篇完整的一审民事判决书一般会包含以下几个部分:

法院判决书还可以这样看!你get到学习判决书的方法了吗?

对于判决书首部的当事人身份事项和诉讼代理人事项,它可以为律师找到潜在的客户,也可以分析一个律师的胜诉率,为当事人寻找合适的律师。但这不是今天文章的重点,因此不在此讨论,有兴趣的读者可添加小编个人微信进行了解。

从判决书的正文开始是我们学习的重点,小编将其分为了以下几个部分:

一、“原告诉称”+“经审理查明”——学习民事起诉状的撰写

首先来介绍一下民事起诉状的基本格式:

法院判决书还可以这样看!你get到学习判决书的方法了吗?

在撰写民事起诉状的过程中,它的难不在于文书格式,因为这是个体力活,你只要花时间照着相应的模板进行调整即可,而是难在于如何有逻辑、简练而清晰地陈述有利于己方的案件事实,明确地表达己方的诉求,这是个脑力活,需要有高度的归纳概括能力以及用法言法语来表达,这就需要我们多看多写,要有目的性地去学习如何撰写民事起诉状中的正文部分。

在判决书正文的事实部分,“原告诉称”后面的内容往往就是原告提交的民事起诉状正文中的内容,包括诉讼请求以及事实和理由,而“本院查明”则是法院在客观中立的角度对案件基本案情的描述,优秀的判决书在这部分会将复杂的案件事实用最简单的语言说清楚。在学习如何撰写民事起诉状正文中的“事实与理由”部分时,我们可以通过对比这两个部分,学习“本院查明”中如何将基本案情用最简练的法言法语表述,再学习“原告诉称”中是如何提出对己方有利的观点,然后将两者结合,真正做到诉状中的内容既简洁明了又不遗漏关键信息,而且还有利于己方。

而对于如何规范地表述诉讼请求,使诉讼请求更明确和具体,我们也可以在“原告诉称”部分进行学习,例如我们在撰写一起民间借贷纠纷的民事起诉状过程中,其中一项诉讼请求是要求被告支付逾期利息,但不知道如何表述更为规范,此时就可以到裁判文书网检索民间借贷案件的判决书,查看“原告诉称”中其他当事人是如何表述的,通过对比选择更适合本案的表述方式。将“诉讼请求”以及“事实与理由部分”表述清楚了,一篇优秀的民事起诉状也由此产生了,剩下的就是体力活—调整文书格式。

二、“被告辩称”—学习民事答辩状的撰写

首先来介绍一下民事答辩状的基本格式:

法院判决书还可以这样看!你get到学习判决书的方法了吗?

在一场诉讼中,我们称原告为“攻方”,被告为“守方”,原告提交的民事起诉状等于建立起一道围墙,要围剿被告,此时被告提交的答辩状则意在打破围墙,突围而出,因此被告的答辩内容一般都是围绕着原告在起诉状提出的观点进行辩驳。学习如何撰写答辩状也是诉讼实务中不可缺乏的一个技能。

在判决书正文的事实部分,“被告诉称”后面的内容往往就是被告提交的民事答辩状中的“答辩意见和理由”,那如何在判决书中学习答辩状的撰写呢?一是学习答辩状里面法言法语的表述,二是学习被告如何针对原告的观点进行辩驳。对于第二点,我们需要通过分别列举“原告诉称”中所提出的观点和“被告辩称”中提出的辩驳观点,进行对比学习,从而把握被告的答辩思路和方式,有精力的同学甚至可以总结归纳在同一诉求下被告不同的答辩思路,例如在原告主张与被告存在口头借款,要求被告还本付息的情形下,不同的被告答辩思路并不一致,有些被告直接否认了借款的存在,认为口头借款不合常理,原告证据不足以证明借款关系的存在,而有些被告则直接主张该笔款项属于第三人委托被告向原告收取的XX款项,不属于原被告之间的借款法律关系。因此,通过判决书学习不同的答辩思路和方式,感受原被告之间诉讼策略的碰撞,能为我们以后遇到不同的案件类型,写好每一份答辩状奠定基础。

三、“本院认为”——学习如何理解和运用法条

一个案件要取得胜诉,不可缺乏两个支持:一是证据支持,二是法律支持。证据的重要性留待下文讨论,这里我们来谈一下如何通过判决书来学习如何理解和运用法条。

不同于英美法系法学教育的“案例教学法”模式,我们国家以“讲授法”为主。在大学的法学专业学习中,我们往往是先学习法条后进行案例分析,而且接触的案例并不多,对法条的理解更多地停留在理论层面,而在法律实务中,我们一般是先接触案例再去检索相关的法律依据,因此理论教学与实践的脱节,导致很多法学生在刚接触复杂多变的实务案件时不知从何下手,不懂得在法律实践中具体如何去适用法条。

法院判决书还可以这样看!你get到学习判决书的方法了吗?

(来源于:李文民与肖鸿民间借贷纠纷一审民事判决书 (2015)鄂洪山民三初字第00559号)

裁判文书的公开给我们带来了很好的学习机会,即通过案例,学习如何理解和运用法律法规。你可以选择在看完原被告的主张和所提供的证据后,自己尝试检索相关的法律法规,然后与“本院认为”部分所适用的法律法规作对比(有些判决书会直接在最后附上与本案相关的法律法规),也可以直接到“本院认为”部分,学习法官是如何运用法律条文,阐述判决的理由,从而通过具体的案例加深对法条的理解和运用。除此之外,如果你对某一法条比较感兴趣,想知道在实务中会怎么适用,可以直接通过关键词搜索,进入引用了该法条的判决书进行查看和学习。

法院判决书还可以这样看!你get到学习判决书的方法了吗?

四、学习如何举证

根据《最高人民法院关于民事诉讼证据的若干规定》的第二条“当事人对自己提出的诉讼请求所依据的事实或者反驳对方诉讼请求所依据的事实有责任提供证据加以证明。没有证据或者证据不足以证明当事人的事实主张的,由负有举证责任的当事人承担不利后果。”

法院判决书还可以这样看!你get到学习判决书的方法了吗?

图片来源于:法制日报

证据被誉为“诉讼之王”,在法律实务中,越来越能感受到“打官司就是打证据”这句话的含义,即使原被告在文书中写得再有道理,如果没有证据作为支撑,也只能逞一时口舌之快,其所主张的事实不能被法官采纳。因此在诉讼实务中,学习如何举证,针对不同的案件事实需要提交哪些证据材料,就变得十分重要。

在一份完整的判决书中,在“原告诉称”和“被告辩称”的后面往往是“原告(被告)向本院提供的证据”,该部分列举了证据材料的名称以及证据的证明目的,以支撑原被告所主张的案件事实和法律观点。

法院判决书还可以这样看!你get到学习判决书的方法了吗?

(来源于:广西科宏医药有限公司与广西科宏药业有限公司借款合同纠纷、借贷合同纠纷案(2012)横民二初

在该部分,我们需要学习的是如何运用证据以及提交哪些证据可以证明己方的主张,在遇到具体案件时,我们可以通过检索同类案例,学习其他当事人是如何举证,己方还缺乏哪些有利的证据,从而补足;在平时的学习中,自己可以归纳总结不同情形下原被告需要提交哪些证据才能证明自己的主张,例如在无借款合同和借条的“口头借款”情况下,原告可能需要提交“备注了借款信息的‘转账记录’”、“被告签收确认的《逾期借款催收通知书》”等证据才有可能证明借款关系的存在。因此,通过结合具体案情,了解判决书中原被告向法院提交的证据材料,不仅可以提醒自己或者当事人在日常生活中涉及类似案件时要保留证据,预防诉讼风险,还可以学习在诉讼中如何举证,使法官采纳己方观点。

五、学习分析案情,总结归纳争议焦点

法院判决书还可以这样看!你get到学习判决书的方法了吗?

(图片来源于:河北新闻网)

争议焦点是纠纷的核心,矛盾的交锋点,案件双方当事人争执的问题所在。为了提高庭审效率,法官在庭审过程中一般都会明确案件的争议焦点,要求原被告双方围绕着争议焦点进行陈述辩论以及举证质证。在开庭前,律师需要根据目前所了解的案件事实以及所掌握的证据材料来总结归纳案件的争议焦点,并针对该争议焦点进行证据以及代理意见的准备。因此学习如何分析案情,归纳争议焦点也是诉讼实务中不可缺乏的一个技能。

对于庭审时法官所归纳的争议焦点,一般都会在判决书中体现,因此,我们在学习判决书的时候,可以在看完原被告的主张和所提供的证据后,尝试自己总结归纳案件的争议焦点,然后再与法官所归纳的对比,找出差距所在,通过同个案由多个案例的学习,慢慢试着学习法官的思维,提高自己分析案情和归纳总结能力,同时在这过程中也可以尝试对同个案由频发纠纷的争议点进行列举,找出诉讼的风险点,为以后在拟定或者修改合同时,懂得如何规避诉讼风险。

世上无难事,只怕有心人。法学生们,无须再抱怨中国如今的法学教育不重视法律实务,这既是现状,无法改变,那只有改变你自己,若真对法律实务感兴趣,你总能找到学习的途径,即使是小小的裁判文书,只要有心,你也能挖掘出大大的知识库,在裁判文书中感受原被告诉讼策略的碰撞和法官的判案智慧,学习诉讼中的实务技能,何乐而不为呢?


作者:李钦宇

更多法律咨询请关注公众号“法渡缘人”

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