为什么留学国外一定要读研,本科教育难道不是终点吗?

出国留学就像是一场长跑比赛,假如站在起跑线上时连自己是跑800M、1500M、3000M,照样马拉松都不清楚,一开始就随着别人的步骤瞎跑,不掉败才怪。而中国的门生和家长们,过分盯着…

出国留学就像是一场长跑比赛,假如站在起跑线上时连自己是跑800M、1500M、3000M,照样马拉松都不清楚,一开始就随着别人的步骤瞎跑,不掉败才怪。而中国的门生和家长们,过分盯着国外大年夜学的排名,在托福、SAT等考试上逝世拼,把大年夜把的光阴和精力整个穷尽在这上面,却很少想自己上大年夜学后的匀称成就,当然也不肯拿出光阴和精力为其筹备。这就似乎一名万米运动员,把所有的精力都放在前五圈,后面的二十圈怎么办?他们的回答是“跑完前五圈再说。”你见过这样的运动员吗?假如然有那他能保持至今也真是厉害。

为什么留学国外必然要读研,本科教导难道不是终点吗?

近日,有一位门生家长来访,由于我住在波士顿郊区,他们就包车过来,我请他们进门后略作酬酢,两位便和我谈起了送他们来的包车司机。一位华裔小伙子,中文不错,波士顿大年夜学卒业,做这一行也已经有两三年了,他的老板是一位中国人,然而他每小时的工钱只有15美元。

我一眼便看出他们惊疑背后的心思,由于他们正盘算为儿子出国留学而努力。波士顿大年夜学在《美国新闻与天下报道》的钻研性大年夜学排名榜上位列第41位,膏火将近4.5万美元,加上养活费,一年用度怎么也要6万阁下,竞争力相称强,若他们儿子能进去就算谢天谢地了。假如幸运地被录取,四年投资将近150万人夷易近币,出来就当这么个司机?如果这样,留美还图什么?“前50名校”还有什么意义?

我喝了口茶,既淡然又坦率的跟他们说:“这位华裔是美国人,当然可以做司机。而你们的儿子则连这个资格都是没有的。”外国人做任何事情都必要事情签证,要东家费钱给你办才可以。人家聘请个工程师、大年夜学教授、医生等高端人才,还犯的上操这个心,谁会为了雇佣一个司机而给你办事情签证呢?你以为外国人解决签证是那么简单的一件工作吗?

这个小插曲,走漏出中国留学热中的一个伟大年夜盲点,家长和门生都一门心思惟着上排名第几的国外院校,但很少为下一步做筹备。事实上,跟着大年夜学的遍及,大年夜门生早已经成为通俗劳动者。大年夜学卒业,到星巴克柜台做收银也算个不坏的事情。别的到餐馆酒保、开出租、当搬运工等,完全是大年夜学卒业生的正常职业。而这些事情,也每每只是临时的。大年夜学卒业后这么过度一下,然后设法主见子读钻研院,这样才能算的上是专业人才,由于只有钻研院卒业才可以。

以是,留学不仅仅是上大年夜学,还必须有读钻研院的筹划。

许多中国留门生根本没故意识到这一点。他们大年夜学一卒业,可选择的职业都是这些通俗劳动者的临时事情。当然弗成能有人给你办事情签证。结果在国外一天也没有事情过,不过是大年夜学在国外混几年,和中国留门生同屋做几年中餐,拿到国外文凭返国罢了,有的愈甚者是连国外文凭都拿不到,只能那个diploma或certificate。这样返国后不仅国外学历认证无法经由过程,在海内你的国外学历当然也是百无一用,只能海归变海待了。

《纽约时报》教导版曾经公布过一组数据,此中包括各类学历和专业的中等年薪以及失业率,从一个侧面赞助我们懂得了这一问题。中国留门生最为热衷的企业治理专业(Business Management and Administration),本科生的中等年薪就3.7万美元,险些是最低真个事情,而且失业率高达7.1%;而同一专业的硕士学位持有者,中等年薪8万,翻了一倍还多,失业率仅4.3%。也难怪,在美国最底层的大年夜学(即中国的家长和门生在排名榜上找不到的“四流大年夜学”),其卒业生都有三分之一要读钻研院。在美国不读钻研院,哪怕大年夜学卒业了也不过是个打工仔。

为什么留学国外必然要读研,本科教导难道不是终点吗?

当然,凡事都有例外。假如有幸上了常青藤,并且体现优良,本科卒业去华尔街或精英企业的可能性照样有的。但这仅属于极少数人。别的便是工程专业。在本科生已经成为通俗劳动者的期间,工程专业仍旧被誉为“第一个专业学位”,也便是最低级的“专业学位”。言下之意,其他本科专业根本不算专业。由于工程专业要求高,练习专门,水平不敷没法儿混,拿个本科学位很可贵。 美国本科学位中等年薪最高的几个专业,基础全是工程:电子工程(6.2万)、机器工程(5.9万)、通俗工程(5.7万)、谋略机科学(5.3万)、夷易近用工程(5.2万)。

这里必要指出的是,《纽约时报》的报道并不周全。比如,根据PayScale所公布的2013-2014年度本科专业起薪排名,排在第一的是煤油工程,高达10.3万,大年夜概表现了美国近年来油气业的暴富。)然则,作为专业职员,这仍旧是相称低的工薪,除了极少几个例外,显着低于其他专业的硕士学位的年薪。比如,教导专业是最为清寒的专业之一,门生本质也属于最低之列,但本科以上的高等学位持有者中等年薪仍旧有5.9万。护士拿个硕士,中等年薪则为8.7万。 别的,工程专业虽然供不应求,但本科卒业的失业率依然对照高,大年夜致在5.1%到7.4%的幅度。假如在上述几个工程专业得到本科以上的高等学位,中等年薪就分手依次变为11.4万、10.9万、10.4万、10.3万、10.1万。也便是说,工程专业读了钻研院,拿十万以上的年薪属于老例。更紧张的是,拿到高等学位后失业率极低,大年夜致都在3%以下。为什么留学国外必然要读研,本科教导难道不是终点吗?

《纽约时报》还指出,要成为有执照的工程师,必要本科四年工程专业的练习,并经由过程两个专业考试。然则,从2020年开始,工程师执照将要求硕士学位。可见,纵然是工程专业,本科也越来越不敷用。 另一个被漠视的专业,便是照料护士。很少据说中国门生出来学照料护士的。但持有本科学位的护士中等年薪达5万,没有一个商科专业能与之比拟。而且失业率仅4.8%。拿着硕士的护士,中等年薪则到8.7万,失业率仅为1.9%,属于失业率最低的专业之一。像耶鲁这样的名校,都设有照料护士学院。如今照料护士学又开始设立博士学位,让医生感觉自己的职位地方受到要挟、很不痛快。这些都表现了护士职位地方之高。

跟着“婴儿潮”一代的退休,美国进入老龄社会,护士会加倍供不应求。 假如不学工程和照料护士专业,那么,中国门生在美国本科卒业后,生怕难以指望找到事情。商科里最盛行的两个专业是金融和管帐,本科卒业生的中等年薪分手是4.7万和4.5万,失业率分手为6.9%和8.2%。一旦读了更高的学位,中等年薪就分手变为10.4万和9.1万。但要留意,这生怕包括许多有多年事情履历的人的年薪。我一位同伙的孩子拿到管帐硕士,有幸在四大年夜财会事务所之一找到了事情,地点就在纽约市,但起薪也才5万多。

上述这些,不过是证清楚明了我一直的态度:上大年夜学是为钻研院卡位,本科本身不是高等教导的终点。这好比在中国读高中,上好高中是为了考好大年夜学能先声夺人。不管你上了什么着名的高中,弗成能把高中文凭当奇迹跳板。何况现在美国的一个大年夜学本科文凭还不如以前的高中文凭。

再回归开首所说的万米运动员,对付他那种急功近利的战术,就会造成诸多恶果。而对付留门生来说,在托福、SAT上创造了比自己实际水平高许多的分数,终极还真可能上了比自己实际水平高一截的大年夜学。达到的同砚可能感觉自己捡了个便宜,但问题来了,大年夜学层级越高,要求就越严,而且国外院校也是出了名的宽进严出。假如你入学前所有精力都花在考试上,就更弗成能进行大年夜学的学业筹备。事实上,大年夜部分门生和家长根本不知道若何筹备,这样上的大年夜学越好就可能越掉败,纵然不被黉舍劝退,到时刻拿一串C回来,也根本难以上像样的钻研院。

可见,留学前的筹划很紧张。当然核心问题首先是要知道留学的教导终点在哪里?若何做出匀称分配。我的建议是托福、SAT等考试成就虽然很紧张,但不要把所有精力都花在这些上面。要拿出相称的光阴,筹备大年夜一课程。由于对中国门生而言,大年夜一是最令人措手不及的寻衅,初到国外,一瞬间置身于不认识的情况中,还要立马适应进修,想必是必要光阴的。而

国外虽然选课很自由,但本科不比钻研院,有很多选课限定,纵然学理工的,也必须修满多少文科课程。有些课程期末还要写读书申报,对个中国门生的练习基础上是零。以是,在这些方面做好筹备,留学前两年就必须徐徐开始了。换句话说,你跑最月朔千米时,要斟酌后面九千米的体力分配,这样在万米比赛中才可能有竞争力。

另一方面,从家长层来说,许多家长都望子成龙,望女成凤,为了让孩子在留学时能够先声夺人,早早在中学阶段就送出国,以致是更小的时刻,可惜,在美国读中学、高中,耗资伟大年夜,后面还有大年夜学。家长们当然是为孩子上大年夜学留足了钱,但可能并没有想到大年夜学后面还有钻研院。结果把钱花在前期初中至大年夜学阶段,在最必要拿学位时,反而经济上就有些吃力了。这是长跑比赛中范例的差错,在一开始就把体力耗尽了。

人无远虑,必有近忧。因为我国与国外在社会经济轨制和教导文化等方面的伟大年夜鸿沟,造成了留学的高度盲目性。在这种盲目的感动中,很少人能够看得清楚,看得远。

更多留学归国资讯敬请关注 “欧美亚留门生办事(sicedu)”微信”民众,”号,或直接搜索“欧美亚学历认证”进入官网查看。

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