被“膨胀学历”催生的考研族:逾七成受访者参加过或打算考研

考研7天冲刺。 中国青年报 图 前不久,2017年考研初试成就陆续公布,这次报考人数首次破200万。 陈瑞便是这200多万分之一,在她看来,考研是一件“天经地义”的工作,“现在到处…

考研7天冲刺。 中国青年报 图

前不久,2017年考研初试成就陆续公布,这次报考人数首次破200万。

陈瑞便是这200多万分之一,在她看来,考研是一件“天经地义”的工作,“现在到处都是本科卒业的门生,本科学历不值钱了,必须得继承深造。”

根据中国高校传媒同盟的查询造访数据显示,来自300多所高校850人的被查询造访群体中,76.71%的受访者表示已参加过钻研生考试或盘算考研。

事实上,自1999年高校扩招以来,高校卒业生逐年增添。因为得到大年夜学教导的人数增添,本科学历者越来越多,其竞争力自然下降,进而追求更高学历。

用人单位青睐高学历,前进学历前进就业竞争力

新学期刚开始,在天津一所高校读大年夜三的张新业发明,周围很多同砚都在评论争论考研的工作。有的同砚已经确定了目标高校,开始买参考书做筹备;有的同砚确定考研,还不知道考哪所高校,盘算先复习公共课再定目标。

张新业也有考研的盘算,正纠结着报考哪所黉舍、哪个专业,以及是读学硕照样专硕。“这几天都在向学长学姐咨询考研相关信息,还听了几场有关考研的讲座。”在他看来,现在他的大年夜部分光阴已经被考研盘踞了。

“我盼望未往返家乡到奇迹单位事情或者留在高校当师长教师,但这两份抱负事情都对学历有着很高要求。”面对自己憧憬却要求高学历的事情,张新业选择了考研这条路。他觉得用人单位青睐高学历卒业生,是可以理解的,“学历应该是用人单位最好的选人标准,实用且方便。”张新业说。

中国高校传媒同盟的查询造访数据显示,23.29%的受访者在求职或训练口试时碰到过学历轻蔑,42.48%的受访者觉得自己本科就读高校一样平常,盼望经由过程读研改变“身世”。

2016年12月,刘一苇第二次参加考研,早年阵子公布的初试分数来看,她应该可以进入报考高校的复试。

刘一苇是辽宁一所985、211高校的2016届卒业生,她是班里为数不多的考研族,“班里的同砚要么保研,要么出国,还有一部分人卒业直接事情了。”在刘一苇看来,班里同砚之以是能本科卒业就顺利找到不错的事情,与卒业于985、211高校不无关系。而班里极少人考研的情形,她总结为“985、211高校门生的傲娇”。

只管本科“身世”不低,但刘一苇照样不想本科卒业就踏上事情岗位。“我对‘事情’这个观点有点儿迷茫,考研也是想缓一缓,读书让我更有安然感。”她奉告记者,“事情什么时刻都可以找,前进学历应该趁热打铁,学历是一辈子的事儿。”

刘一苇的目标是上海的一所985、211高校,“那所高校比我的本科卒业高校好很多,资本也加倍富厚,去上海还可以坦荡眼界。”第一次考研掉利后,刘一苇依然没有盘算事情,“我报考的专业很多人‘四战’‘五战’,我‘二战’不算什么,父母也很支持。”

如今,刘一苇正在筹备复试,她的目标是读完硕士继承读博士,“我想留在高校里当师长教师,现在大年夜多半高校都只招博士了。”

与刘一苇本科卒业后就选择考研的环境不合,郑凯在事情近3年后,有了考研的动机。

2014年7月,郑凯从辽宁一所985、211高校卒业。本科卒业后,郑凯辗转上海、北京,已经换了4份事情了,现在他盘算考研。“这几年过得不是很顺利,考研后会有更多可能性。”他说。

对郑凯来说,筹备考研不是一件陌生的事,早在2013年9月,他就备考过。“大年夜四序自己对照迷茫,不小心‘逃’过了黉舍的保研宣讲会,也错过了谋事情的最佳时期,于是抉择考研。”郑凯奉告记者,备考3个多月后,他忽然意识到自己不是很想继承读书,于是选择了放弃。

“出来事情近3年了,发明这个社会照样必要高学历人才的,我想再给自己一次时机。”郑凯把考研目标定在比自己本科卒业高校排名更靠前的浙江大年夜学,他也盼望将来在杭州成长,“杭州的就业和创业情况都很好,假如能拿到浙江大年夜学的硕士学历,那便是最好的‘拍门砖’了。”

如今,郑凯边事情边复习,在他看来:“当你意识到这个学历你非要弗成的时刻,你就会拼尽全力去努力。”

家长觉得本科卒业就业难,被迫走上考研路

2016届卒业生韩莉已经是考过两次研的“熟手在行”了,父母盼望她将来进国企事情,是以强烈要求韩莉考研,黉舍专业都不限定,拿到硕士文凭即可。“我的父母觉得,除了国企和央企,其他公司都不是‘正经’单位,而现在国企和央企对学历要求又对照高,本科生险些没有时机,以是他们让我考研便是硬性要求。”她说。

韩莉本人对付考研的执念没有那么深,她承认自己这两年的备考没有尽自己百分之百的努力,“两次考研都是从4月开始筹备,一开始斗志昂扬,可是越临近考试心态越放松”,她表示,假如这一次考不上自己报考的黉舍专业,不会吸收调度,“我不想为了一纸文凭,去读自己不爱好的专业。”韩莉说。

现在,考研的分数线还没公布,韩莉已经开始投简历、谋事情了,她觉得做两手筹备,心里不慌。然而,韩莉的父母早已暗示她,此次假如还没考上,今年事尾就继承考。

李芮在安徽一所211高校读研,她将在今年6月卒业。已经找到一份事情的她,对妈妈既感激又有点儿埋怨,“很谢谢我妈妈两年前‘逼’我读研,在谋事情时,我才意识到硕士学历的紧张性;但我又有点儿怪我妈妈,昔时她应该‘逼’我报考一个更好的黉舍。”

2013年9月,李芮在安徽一所非985、211的通俗高校读大年夜三,从那时开始,她的妈妈就要求她本科卒业后必须读研。“当时妈妈给我两条路,去喷鼻港读钻研生或者考研。”做好本科卒业直接事情筹备的李芮,异常抗拒妈妈的要求,“当时我妈妈采取了削减养活费的要领‘逼’我,从蓝本每个月1500元一点点削减到每个月500元。好在我有些蓄积,坚持了一阵子。直到2014年4月,我‘降服佩服’了,抉择听妈妈的话去考研。”

在李芮的妈妈看来,非985、211的通俗高校卒业的本科生就业很艰苦,尤其是她盼望女儿留在省会集肥,可能就更难了。“我妈妈所在单位同事的孩子险些都是钻研生卒业,我的堂姐们也是钻研生卒业,她可能也有点儿攀比生理吧。”李芮说,“当时妈妈表示,假如我第一年考不上,就供我再考一年。她说,‘大概你现在恨我,但我必须管你’。”

颠最后半年多的筹备,2015年春天,李芮顺利地考上了安徽一所211高校,“我便是‘混学历’的,以是读了专硕。”即将卒业的她,在2016岁尾谋事情时,才明白妈妈“逼”她考研的良苦用心。

“没谋事情时不感觉学历多紧张,谋事情时发明有的单位招人时‘明码标价’,硕士学历人为显着高于本科学历,以致有的单位直接写明‘只招本科以上学历’。”李芮说。

以2015年数据为例,麦可思钻研院公布的薪酬数据显示,一线城市,本科生的匀称薪资在4364元,硕士生匀称薪资为6503元;二线城市,本科生匀称薪资为3692元,硕士生为5436元;其他城市,本科生匀称薪资为3162元,硕士生为4821元。由此可见,硕士学历可以得到更高的薪资。

李芮奉告记者,“我挺荣耀自己读研的,不过还有一些单位明确招‘学硕’或‘985、211高校卒业生’,我又感觉自己的身份有些为难了,妈妈应该‘逼’我再狠一点儿。”

受教导程度普遍前进,考研族仍必要更多理性

在21世纪教导钻研院副院长熊丙奇看来,考研人数“激增”,一方面由于在职钻研生纳入统考。但最根本的缘故原由是大年夜学卒业生就业形势严酷,以及我国的“学历情结”依旧存在。

北京师范大年夜学教导学部教授李奇在吸收采访时先容,30多年前,吸收高等教导的人数很低,高等教导便是精英教导;1999年高校扩招后,高等教导毛入学率快速上升,2002年达到15%,高等教导从精英教导阶段进入大年夜众化阶段;现在,以致有的地区险些进入高等教导的遍及化阶段。“总体教导程度的前进,意味着进入某个详细专业领域的要求也有所前进。就会呈现曩昔是本科学历的人做的事情,现在接管硕士学历以致博士学历的人。”在李奇看来,所谓“学历贬值”,与受教导程度普遍前进亲昵相关。

熊丙奇在吸收采访时表示,社会用人单位对学历提出越来越高的要求,令不少门生把前进自身的学历层次,作为考研的重要目标,并把前进学历层次与前进竞争力等同起来。这着实助长了对钻研生学历的畸形需求,并晦气于前进钻研生人才培养质量。他指出:“要让考研回归理性,还必要办理大年夜学卒业生就业难的问题,打消社会的学历情结,才能突破人才评价中的唯学历论。”

熊丙奇觉得,钻研生报考热,带有极强的短期功利色彩。“今朝在就业形势严酷、社会‘学历情结’的困绕中,考生们是难以进行理性选择的。”他建议:“要切实推进钻研生人才培养机制革新,建立钻研生质量保障体系。同时,旋转我国社会,尤其是公务员招考、国有企奇迹等单位招人中存在的唯学历论,才能向导门心理性选择。”

(应受访者要求,文中陈瑞、张新业、刘一苇、郑凯、韩莉、李芮为化名)

(原题为:《被“膨胀学历”催生的考研族》)

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