有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

2017年已经过去六分之一啦,我们一起回顾一下年初你定的计划(立的flag)都完成了多少? 练口语?考雅思?过四六级?还是学一门日语、韩语、法语等二外?有拖延症不要紧,目标定的太高…

2017年已经过去六分之一啦,我们一起回顾一下年初你定的计划(立的flag)都完成了多少?

练口语?考雅思?过四六级?还是学一门日语、韩语、法语等二外?有拖延症不要紧,目标定的太高也不是最重要的。其实,无论是学什么样的科目,都会有万变不离其宗的学习方法。有些普适性的学习方法,不仅能适用于任何知识的学习,而且还能让大家学半功倍!

有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

今天我们给大家讲一些随着时间推移日渐成熟的学习方法:

1、费曼学习法 Feynman Technique

以教促学:以便于回想储存的信息。

这个方法又称「快速学习法」,因为它可以迅速的找到对于刚刚学习过的知识生疏或者还没搞懂的地方,非常推荐!

有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

步骤如图:

第一步:获取知识(某概念),理解你所要学习的材料的内容。

第二步:讲解/复述你所获得的主要内容。

第三步:用你自己的方式以潜意识的形式再次复述你所学到的知识。

第四步:这一步是一个可循环过程:不满意——纠错反馈;满意——尝试运用更简单精炼的语言概括。再用你所学到的知识解决实际问题,加以运用。

第五步:反思。反思你在思考的时候在哪里卡了壳,着重这个地方,再次理解。这个过程至关重要!

第六步:检验,通过不断的进行实践检验才能巩固你对于该知识点的理解。

考量自己对一个概念或知识是否理解,一个最直观的方法就是讲给别人听,如果能够用简洁清晰的语言让别人完全听懂你在说什么,就证明你完全了解所学的概念;如果不能,也许你还应该好好去理解一番才行。

有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

加拿大人斯科特.H.杨(Scott H Young)用一年时间自学完成了 MIT 公开课上的 33 门计算机科学课程,正常情况下需要四年才能修完,并最终通过了所有考试!在分享其学习方法的时候,他也提到了费曼技巧。

2、思维导图学习法 Mind Mapping

思维导图这个学习法相信不用多说,这个概念也早已在许多知识er心里留下不可撼动的位置!

有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

这个理念是英国心理学家东尼•博赞在达•芬奇笔记的启发下发明的风靡世界的思维工具。不过思维导图这个想法可以追溯到几个世纪前。早在公元三世纪,古罗马哲学家波菲利在其著作《亚里士多德<范畴篇>导论》中提出了一种对知识的分类体系—波菲利之树。

思维导图学习法的好处很多:首先是方便记录,加强记忆;其次过程非常自由,结果十分清晰;最后既见森林,又见树木。

有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

它的重点要素是:中心点、分支线、关键词以及个性标。

有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

思维导图的运用,有助于我们进一步的认识大脑,并对储藏的信息进行提炼和重组。我们生活在一个互联网时代,每天接收着庞大的信息量,这样的思维方式无疑是学半功倍的一种方法。

这里推荐2个在线的思维导图工具,百度脑图和Processon,都是免费使用的。客户端软件推荐xmind,国产、免费、强大、跨平台!

3、SQ3R 阅读法

SQ3R这个阅读技巧的名字由五个单词的首字母组成,分别是“Survey! ( 浏览 )”、“Question! ( 提问 )”、“Read! ( 阅读 )”、“Recite! ( 复述 )”、“Review! ( 复习 )” 。这几个词语所代表的意思是:

① 阅读之前,先浏览;

在这个过程中,要广泛涉猎所有的重要信息:书名、正副标题、插图表格、复习题和前言结语、摘要概要等。

② 在你浏览的时候,提出问题;

从书名、标题上就可以开始提问题,包括各章节承上启下的内容,这样一边粗读一边提问有利于激发学习兴趣,促进钻研。

③ 当你开始阅读时,要精读细读;

这个过程需对重要、难解的部分反复阅读,尽可能使自己理解。可以用“读书笔记”等方法将原有的知识和新知识结合起来,建立联系。

④ 读完一个章节后,进行复述;

这个过程考查快速记忆,回忆内容。看看自己开始的提问有没有得到正确的回答,来检验自己看没看懂。

⑤ 复习要持续进行。

复习一般在复述的后一两天进行。既可以重温已有的知识,也可以温故而知新,从旧的知识里生出新的感悟。

有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

4、西蒙学习法 Simon learning method

诺贝尔经济学奖获得者西蒙教授曾提出了这样一个见解:“对于一个有一定基础的人来说,他只要真正肯下功夫,在 6 个月内就可以掌握任何一门学问。”

西蒙教授立论所依据的实验心理的研究成果表明:一个人 1 分钟到 1 分半钟可以记忆一个信息,心理学把这样一个信息称为“块”,估记每一门学问所包含的信息量大约是 5 万块,如果 1 分钟能记忆 1 “块”,那么5万块大约需要 1000 个小时,以每星期学习 40 小时计算,要掌握一门学问大约需要用 6 个月。

有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

为了感谢西蒙的这个研究成果,教育心理学界称这种学习法为西蒙学习法,又名 “ 锥形学习法 ”。其原理就像居里夫人所说的那样,“ 知识的专一性像锥尖, 精力的集中好比是锥子的作用力, 时间的连续性好比是不停顿地使锥子往前钻进。”

西蒙学习法的显著好处在于: 其知识增长是一种优势累积,不仅在知识的数量上,而且在知识质量上也和传统的学习方法不同。这里可以参考 “ 马太效应 ”,即越是在短时间之内全力掌握了一门学科,质量就越高,越能够理解与运用。

虽然这个学习方法现在还缺少实际的应用方法,还有一些无法忽视的壁垒:比如精力的无法长期保持专注等问题……

有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

接下来,跟大家分享一些简单好用的学习小贴士。

第一,先搞懂道理,再看实例。

不管学习什么领域,都会存在“理论”和“实践”两个部分。如果我们能先把过程的个中道理搞清楚,再去看已经存在的实例就能一目了然。如果没搞清楚基础理论就去参考事例的话,往往会多走弯路,无疑事倍功半。先搞懂道理,再用实例去检验,绝对是性价比最高的一种方法。

第二,始终保持在做最重要的事情。

著名的管理学家科维提出了一个时间管理的理论,把工作按照重要和紧急两个不同的程度进行了划分,就是“四象限法则”,也称“要事第一法则”。

美国总统艾森豪威尔、管理大师彼得•德鲁克等积极倡导,被《时代》杂志誉为“人类潜能的导师”的史蒂芬•柯维,专门著写《要事第一》,并成为全球畅销书。

你可以不用那么复杂,但一定要评估你现在最重要的事情是什么。你不用担心还有其他事情没有做完,因为当你全力以赴把最重要的事情做完后,那么第二重要的事情自然就变成了最重要的事情,这反而帮你提高了效率。

第三,确保完全理解你正在学的东西。

虽然古时有云“不求甚解”,现在也常常推广泛听泛读之类的学习方法。但这些方法只适用于广泛涉猎大量的知识面,而如果你想要了解某一个知识领域的深度,就一定要专注于每一块小的知识点,完全理解它们。这样你才能够获得实实在在的进步。

有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

第四,学习 25 到 30 分钟后,就休息一会儿或者做些其它有意思的事情。

一个人每天所能集中的精力是有限的,没办法长时间的处在高度集中的状态。因此为了避免“无效学习”,科学建议一般在学习 25 – 30 分钟之后就应该休息 5 – 10 分钟,给大脑一个缓冲的时间,以便于更好的开始下一段学习。

有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

这也是“番茄时间法”的基本原理。

第五,一旦你要开始学习一个知识,先去检测一下自己的程度然后再主动去学习。

在开始学习之前,你首先要对自己学习的东西和自身的实力有所了解,再加以权衡,明确后就能更好地制定计划、确定学习进度等。还有在接受新信息新知识时,要积极发挥自己的主观能动性,当你主动地去学习时,你会更有创造力。

第六,我们的大脑很擅长辨认却不擅长回忆,因此你可以用尝试着主动锻炼这个方面,比如说有目的的去检测自己。

你应该也有过这样的经历:在你见到某个人或某件物品的时候,能够想起来是某人/某物是什么,却常常不记得当时的情景。这是大脑遗忘的一个正常反应,但是如果你常常带着锻炼的目的去检测自己的记忆,一段时间之后一定会有很明显的改善。

有哪些相见恨晚的高效学习方法?

第七,勤问,并及时改正和强化学习的知识。

如果你对某些知识感到很模糊的话,你可以去问问那些笔记做得好的朋友,或者向身边小伙伴求助,你一定能够获得启发。记得一定要及时更新笔记,以巩固对这部分知识的理解。

第八,通过一些记忆法来加强记忆,比如说:

①首字缩略法:飞雪连天射白鹿,笑书神侠倚碧鸳(金庸全集)

②意象联想:在你的脑海里,用你所学的东西编一个故事。

等~~~

著名记忆大师东尼博赞在他的著作《博赞记忆法》中就推荐过上述方法,以创造各种各样的联系方式,将不同事物放在一起记忆,让大脑自然地做出反应,他用这种方法帮助许多人加快了记忆速度,提高了记忆效率。

第九,创造一个专属的学习空间。

每个人都应该为自己创造一个专属的学习空间。在这个环境里,你只能做学习相关的事情。每当你进入这个空间,脑中会下意识的开启学习状态,这个空间可以是你的书房、图书馆等。

最后,学会奖励自己。

当你完成一整天的辛苦工作后,不论结果好坏,你都要好好地犒劳自己,让自己身体和心灵获得满足!

介绍了这么多学半功倍的学习方法,最重要的是深入理解并加以运用,毕竟“纸上得来终觉浅,绝知此事要躬行”,观念方法听了一千遍也不如亲自实践一遍。

最后希望所有的小伙伴们都能够找到适合自己的学习方法,发掘潜力、轻松学习,让学东西变成一件令自己开心的事情!

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