观点丨关于素质教育的六大反思

提倡素质教育以来,我们的教育改革取得了巨大的进步。同时,在改革过程中出现的一些教育现象以及与此相关的一些社会现象令人费解,有些在某种程度上制约了素质教育的深入发展,甚至影响到正常的…

提倡素质教育以来,我们的教育改革取得了巨大的进步。同时,在改革过程中出现的一些教育现象以及与此相关的一些社会现象令人费解,有些在某种程度上制约了素质教育的深入发展,甚至影响到正常的教育教学活动。以下是笔者对素质教育推进中的几点反思。

第一

教师还敢不敢大胆进行教育?

报刊杂志经常刊登呼吁推进素质教育的文章,一些文章往往以某某学生受到了教师的伤害或者学生伤害了别人开篇,经过作者的分析,最后得出结论:这种老师伤害学生或学生伤害他人的现象是应试教育所致。为了使自己的文章有份量,部分作者还宣称这是整个中国教育的失败。

笔者认为,某位教师出了问题,不应该由此以偏概全说所有的教育出了问题,更不应该无限上纲上线对整个教育体制妄加评论。某学生品质恶劣,说明某教师对他的教育是失败的,这一点无庸置疑,但由此推论是整个教育的失败,不免有失偏颇。因为可以肯定地说,在任何教育模式下总会有某些教师的失职和某些学生出问题。

笔者并不是否定开展素质教育,而是强调提倡素质教育的同时不要把个别当作普遍、特殊当作规律;更不应该把现在提倡的素质教育和过去的教育形式对立起来。如果把学校的正当管理引发意外的责任全归于学校和教师,必然会挫伤一部分教师的积极性!最终受到损害的只能是孩子、家长、社会和我们国家的未来。

确切地说,现在的部分教育行政部门和学校已经一定程度上存在着不敢管理和教育的现象。比如组织学生郊游,这是一种培养学生亲近自然、感悟自然、体验自然,形成尊重自然情感的有效教育途径。可是组织郊游管理难度大,容易出现意外,于是一些学校便不再敢组织此类活动。这样一来,发生意外的可能性避免了,然而开启学生心智的窗户却关闭了。

第二

学生会不会成为当代最不尊重教师的人?

随着实施科教兴国战略、尊师重教的社会风尚的逐步形成和教师社会地位的提高,教师越来越受到人们的尊重。可是不得不承认,随着素质教育的推进,各种教育思潮泛滥,尤其是受到市场经济体制和教育产业化影响,部分学生对教育的认识陷入混乱。许多学生认为“我拿钱上学,买的是学校的服务、老师的服务,我就是顾客、就是上帝”。

我认为这是对当前学校教育的最大的误解。退一万步讲,即便教育是一种服务,可它的服务宗旨、服务原则、服务目的、服务对象、服务手段,和社会上的其它种类的服务是有区别的。教育是一种塑造未来的事业!如果把教师的工作等同于一般的社会服务工作,那么他们的工作将受到极大的局限。培养人的道德品质、文化修养并不是一般的服务所能达到的。如果学生仅仅是以服务的标准要求教师,那么教师可能成为最不被学生尊重的人,而不被尊重的人的工作是不能达到最大效益的。

第三

你是应试教育的受益者还是受害者?

现在一些人为了论证过去的教育是应试教育,便把社会上的一切问题全记在应试教育的账上,仿佛素质教育下的学生轻易便可知识学到手、能力学上身,这可是对教育的天大误解。没有刻苦钻研的精神、勤奋好学的态度,是没有人能够成才的。坚实的基础知识、高尚的道德修养,都离不开刻苦、认真的学习。

当年“素质教育”这一概念刚提出来时,能提笔写文章批判应试教育的作者应该是没有受到过素质教育恩泽的人,或者说没少吃应试教育的苦,应该有发言权。可这些人的文章把过去自己受的教育说得一无是处,不能让人信服!能在报刊杂志上发表文章,说明素质不低!素质不低的你却是应试教育下的学生!如此分析再回头看那些对过去教育的过分指责,未免有些情理不通。

第四

国内的素质教育和国外教育对比

在素质教育推进过程中,学习国外先进的教育教学理念,吸收和借鉴国外科学的教育教学方法,是推进素质教育的有效途径。与此同时,保持我们固有的基础教育方面科学有效的教育教学理念同样重要。我国的基础教育并不弱,在一定程度上存在优势。但是这些优势在素质教育推进过程中是否得到了足够的重视和利用,这值得反思。比如,现在的教育教学活动我们对学生的知识掌握要求很高,这为学生将来的发展打下了坚实的基础。而现在的压缩教材、减少课时的倾向,明显是对中国教育教学优势的伤害。而国外的教育却在反思他们过低的知识要求,力求在新的教学改革中有突破。他们的反思值得借鉴。

第五

素质教育不只是教育系统自己的事

压缩教材、减少课时后,学生的自由时间是多了一些,但是课余时间的支配、课外活动的场地、器械、辅导教师没有保证,社区设施不能满足孩子们的发展需要,这些问题应引起社会各界的重视,并给予研究解决。素质教育在实施过程中,强大的物质后盾和足够的社会理解是必不可少的支持。否则,素质教育成为教育系统内一厢情愿的改革,缺少了社会的参与和支持,改革就会走弯路。类似学生课后无处去,泡网吧、玩网络游戏的现象恐怕会越来越普遍。

第六

素质教育和开拓精神、创新能力的培

缺乏开拓精神和创新能力,往往是众多批评应试教育者的利矛。所举例子仿佛很具有典型性:某某公司总裁只有高中学历或大专学历,却极具开拓精神,而现在公司内雇佣有博士几名、硕士几名。言外之意,这博士、硕士受应试教育的毒害,早没了开拓精神,倒是高中学历(或其他)者开拓精神惊人。

个别现象如是,笔者不否认,但若以此否定以往的教育,未免偏颇。现今融资手段有限的情况下,“资本”家控制“知本”家是理所当然的。还有些批评说中国学生缺乏创新能力,所举例子多集中在中外学生的对比上,西方国家的学生创新能力如何高,中国学生如何差。不可否认,西方教育一贯注重培养独立提问的能力、确定研究方法的能力、实施研究计划的能力。而我国多采取初级阶段打基础,高级阶段做学问的战略。就科研意识而言,我们的学生和西方的学生有差距,但是创新能力的体现是需要一定的物资支持的,穷国办大教育的现实才是问题的症结。如果条件许可的话,高考中加入试验操作科目,而不是现在的“纸上谈兵”,我相信,孩子们的动手能力会大大提高。若只是就素质教育而论素质教育,无视其他重要因素的制约,则无益于问题的根本解决。正如笔者前文所言,素质教育不只是教育系统内部的事。

素质教育的进程在推进,我们对它的认识也会越来越深刻。对于其间出现的现象,细心观察,认真分析,我们会得到更多的启示,促使我们进一步搞好素质教育。

栏目:教育多棱镜

作者:任孝勇 北京市通州区潞河中学101100

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